Academic Resources



Diversity and Study Design

Gender and ethnicity of enrolled participants in US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clinical trials for approved ophthalmological new molecular entities.  Mirnbaum FA. J Natl Med Assoc 2018.  PMID 30129511.

Racial/ethnic disparities in ophthalmology clinical trials resulting in US Food and Drug Administration drug approvals from 2000 to 2020.  Berkowitz et al.  JAMA Ophthalmology 2021.  PMID 33885724.

Racial and ethnic disparities in primary open angle glaucoma clinical trials: A systemic review and meta-analysis.  Allison et al.  JAMA Netw open 2021.  PMID 34003274.


Advancing women in healthcare leadership: A systemic review and meta-synthesis of multi-sector evidence on organizational interventions.  Mousa et al. EClinicalMedicine 2021. PMID 34430838.

Building an evidence base on organizational interventions to advance women in healthcare leadership.  Ovseiko et al. EClinicalMedicine 2021. PMID 34485874.

Developing future academic physicians: the Academic Medicine Scholars Program.  Granat et al. Med Sci Educ 2020. PMID 34457728.

Early career development and graduate medical education leadership pathways.  Boucher et al. J Grad Med Educ 2020. PMID 33149842.

Factors that influence the implementation of organizational interventions for advancing women in healthcare leadership: A meta-ethnographic study. Mousa et al.  EClinicalMedicine 2022. PMID 35856039.

Gender-specific conferences and symposia: A putative support structure for female physicians.  Woitowich et al.  J Womens Health 2020.  PMID 31697577.

Institutional imperatives for the advancement of women in medicine and science through the COVID-19 pandemic.  Salles et al.  Lancet 2021. PMID: 34450081

Introducing the MAVEN leadership training initiative to diversity the scientific workforce.  Wang et al. Elife 2021. PMID 34032569.

Leading by design: Lessons for the future from 25 years of Executive Leadership in Academic Medicine (ELAM) program for Women.  Jagsi et al.  Acad Med. 2020.  PMID 33006867.

Organisational best practices for advancing women in leadership: protocol for a systemic literature review.  Mousa et al.  BMJ Open. 2021.  PMID 33895718.

Positive association of a women’s continuing medical education conference on career advancement and promotion.  Mukkamala et al.  Med Educ Online 2021.  PMID 34533431.

Medical Education/Academic Medicine

Academic medicine faculty perceptions of work-life balance before and since the COVID-19 pandemic.  Matulevicius et al. JAMA Netw Open 2021.  PMID 34129021.

Chairs of United States academic ophthalmology departments: A descriptive analysis and trends.  Dotan et al Am J Ophthalmol 2018. PMID 30121244.

COVID-19 threatens progress toward gender equity within academic medicine.  Woitowich et al. Acad Med 2021. PMID 33003040.

Current applicant perceptions of the ophthalmology residency match.  Venincasa et al. JAMA Ophthalmol 2020. PMID 32163107.

Do family responsibilities and a clinical versus research faculty position affect satisfaction with career and work-life balance for medical school faculty?  Beckett et al. J Womens Health 2015. PMID 26070036.

The do’s, don’ts and don’t knows of redressing differential attainment related to race/ethnicity in medical schools. Fyfe et al. Perspect Med Educ 2022. PMID 34964930.

Effect of COVID-19 on the medical school experience, specialty selection, and career choice: a qualitative study.  Krier et al. J Surg Educ 2022. PMID 34863674.

Examining medical student specialty choice through a gender lens: An orientational qualitative study.  Smith V et al. Teach Learn Med 2018. PMID 28497985.

Gender differences in case volume among ophthalmology residents.  Gong et al. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019.  PMID 31318390.

Gender differences in endowed chairs in medicine at top schools.  Gold et al. JAMA Int Med 2020.  PMID 32865546.

Gender differences in faculty rank among academic physicians: A systemic review and meta-anaylsis.  Li et al. BMJ Open 2021.  PMID 34728447.

Gender differences in promotion and scholarly impact: An analysis of 1460 academic ophthalmologists.  Lopez et al.  J Surg Educ 2014. PMID 24852601.

Gender disparities among US academic pediatric ophthalmologists: An analysis of publication productivity, academic rank, and NIH funding.  Camacci et al.  J AAPOS 2020.  PMID 33049372.

The impact of a faculty development program, the Leadership in Academic Medicine Program (LAMP), on self-efficacy, academic promotion and institutional retention.  Tung et al.  BND Med Educ 2021.  PMID 34474670.

Implicit bias and the association of redaction of identifiers with residency application screening scores.  Pershing et al. JAMA Ophthalmol 2021.  PMID 34673889.

Increasing promotion of women faculty in academic medicine: Impact of national career development programs.  Chang et al. J Womens Health. 2020.  PMID 32466701.

Inspired but tired: How medical faculty’s job demands and resources lead to engagement, work-life conflict, and burnout.  Lee et al.  Front Psychol. 2021.  PMID 33643137.

Keys to academic success for under-represented minority young investigators: Recommendations from the Research in Academic Pediatrics Initiative on Diversity (RAPID) National Advisory Committee.  Flores et al.  Int J Equity Health 2019.  PMID 31215424.

Mentoring programs for underrepresented minority faculty in academic medical centers: A systemic review of the literature.  Beech et al. Acad Med 2013.  PMID 23425989.

Mentoring relationships and gender inequities in academic medicine: Findings from a multi-institutional qualitative study.  Murphy et al.  Acad Med 2022.  PMID 34495884.

Mentorship is not enough: Exploring sponsorship and its role in career advancement in academic medicine.  Ayyala et al.  Acad Med 2019.  PMID 30095456.

Minding the gap: Organizational strategies to promote gender equity in academic medicine during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Narayana et al.  J Gen Intern Med 2020.  PMID 33021718.

Narratives of participants in national career development programs for women in academic medicine: Identifying the opportunities for strategic investment.  Helitzer et al.  J Womens Health 2016.  PMID 26982007.

Ophthalmology departments remain among the least diverse clinical departments in US medical schools.  Fairless et al.  Ophthalmology 2021.  PMID 33440211.

  • Reply Quillen et al. Ophthalmology 2022. PMID 34753601
  • Reply Kuhn R. Ophthalmology 2022. PMID 34688476.

Parental leave policy for ophthalmology residents: Results of a nationwide cross-sectional study of program directors.  Wang et al.  J Surg Educ 2021.  PMID 32948506.

Perceptual facilitators for and barriers to career progression: A qualitative study with female early stage investigators in health sciences.  Fernandez et al.  Acad Med 2021.  PMID 33369901.

Recruitment, promotion, and retention in academic medicine: How institutions are addressing gender disparities.  Carr et al.  Womens Health Issues 2017. PMID 28063849.

Residency program directors of US ophthalmology programs: A descriptive analysis.  Kloosterboer et al.  Am J Ophthalmol. 2020.  PMID 31525356.

Retaining faculty in academic medicine: The impact of career development programs for women.  Chang et al.  J Womens Health 2016.  PMID 27058451.

Sex differences in academic productivity across academic ranks and specialties in academic medicine.  Ha et al.  PMID 34185071.

Sex differences in academic rank, scholarly productivity, National Institute of Health Funding, and industry ties among academic cornea specialists in the US.  Chiam et al.  Am J Ophthalmol.  PMID 32941858.

Strategies of female teaching attending physicians to navigate gender-based challenges: An exploratory qualitative study.  Houchens et al.  J Hosp Med 2020.  PMID 32804607.

Striving for gender equity in academic medicine careers: A call to action.  Bates et al.  Acad Med 2016.  PMID 27332868.

To select or be selected – gendered experiences in clinical training affect medical students’ specialty preferences.  Kristoffersson et al. BMC Med Educ 2018.  PMID 30453953.

What are women being advised by mentors when applying to surgery?  Altieri et al.  Am Surg 2020.  PMID 32223809.

Women in academic surgery over the last four decades.  Linscheid et al. PLoS One 2020.  PMID 33326486.

Women’s experiences of promotion and tenure in academic medicine and potential implications for gender disparities in career advancement: A qualitative analysis.  Murphy et al.  JAMA Netw Open 2021. PMID 34542616.

Ophthalmology Workforce, Productivity, and Participation

Association between physician characteristics and payments from industry in 2015-2017: observational study.  Inoue et al. BMJ Open 2019. PMID 31542759.

Analysis of sex diversity trends among ophthalmology match applicants, residents, and clinical faculty.  Aguwa et al. JAMA Ophthalmology 2021. PMID 34554195.

Association between sex composition and publication productivity of journal editorial and professional society board members in ophthalmology.  Camacci et al, JAMA Ophthalmology 2020. PMID 32215609.

Authorship gender composition in the ophthalmology literature from 2015 to 2019. Kalavar et al. Ophthalmology 2021. PMID 32890547.

Call to action to all surgery journal editors for diversity in the editorial and peer review process. Kibbe, Freischlag. JAMA Surg 2020. PMID 32865554.

Characteristics of industry payments to ophthalmologists in the Open Payments database.  Slentz et al. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019. PMID 31268495.

Current and future status of diversity in ophthalmologist workforce.  Xierali et al.  JAMA Ophthalmol 2016. PMID 27416525.

Decadelong profile of women in ophthalmic publications. Franco-Cardenas et al. JAMA Ophthalmol 2015. PMID 25392974.

  • Reply. Davis et al. JAMA Ophthalmol.  2015. PMID 25763927.
  • Reply Tsui et al.  JAMA Ophthalmol 2015.  PMID 25764142.

Differences in practice of ophthalmology by gender in Australia. Lo et al. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2019. PMID 31021502.

Differences in clinical activity and Medicare payments for female vs male ophthalmologists.  Reddy et al. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017.  PMID 28114631.

Medicare payments and physician sex in ophthalmology.  Williams RD. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017. PMID 28114640

Diversity in the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Charlson et al. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019.  PMID 29851757.

Experiences of work-family conflict and mental health symptoms by gender among physician parents during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Frank et al.  JAMA Netw Open 2021.  PMID 34767022.

Female editorial authorship trends in high-impact ophthalmology journals. Fathy et al.  JAMA Ophthalmol 2021.  PMID 34383002.

Five decade profile of women in leadership positions at ophthalmic publications.  Mansour et al. Arch Ophthalmol 2012.  PMID 23143443.

Gender compensation gap for ophthalmologists in the first year of clinical practice.  Jia et al. Ophthalmology 2021.  PMID 33248156.

Gender difference in surgical volume among cataract surgeons.  Feng et al. Ophthalmology 2021.  PMID 32987047.

Gender distribution among surgical journals’ editorial boards: Empowering women surgeon scientists.  Ehrlich et al.  Surgery 2021.  PMID 33494948.

Gender distribution among editorial boards of surgical journals.  Battisti et al.  Br J Surg 2023.  PMID 36511356.

Gender of award recipients in major ophthalmology societies.  Nguyen et al.  Am J Ophthalmol 2021.  PMID 34102152.

Gender parity does not equal gender equity: Continued sexism in medical literature.  Kattapuram et al.  Ann Surg 2021.  PMID 33534234.

Gender representation in pediatric ophthalmology: An analysis of trends over a decade.  Kalavar et al.  J AAPOS 2020.  PMID 33068725.

Gender specific trends in ophthalmologist Medicare collections.  Ahmad et al.  Am J Ophthalmol 2020.  PMID 31926887.

“I may be essential but someone has to look after my kids”: women physicians and COVID.  Smith J et al. Can J Public Health 2021. PMID 34919212

Impact of COVID-19 on longitudinal ophthalmology authorship gender trends.  Nguyen et al. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2021.  PMID 33537883

Improving racial diversity in the ophthalmology workforce: A call to action for leaders in ophthalmology.  Aguwa et al.  Am J Ophthalmol. 2021. PMID 33393483.

JAMA Ophthalmology-The year in review, 2019: Striving for sex parity in leadership and excellence in publications.  Bressler, N.  JAMA Ophthalmol 2020.  PMID 32215593.

Medicare billing and reimbursement differ for women and men in ophthalmology.  Salim and Christmann.  JAMA Ophthalmol 2017. PMID 28796878.

  • Reply Reddy et al. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017. PMID 28796858.

A national survey of Canadian women in ophthalmology: on role models, mentorship, and communities of practice. Kletke et al. Can J Ophthalmol 2021. PMID 33129757.

Pay gap among female and male ophthalmologists compared with other specialties.  Felfeli et al.  Ophthalmology 2022.  PMID 34271073.

Prevelance of female authors in case reports published in the medical literature.  Hsiehchen et al.  JAMA Netw Open 2019.  PMID 31150085.

Promoting equity for women in medicine – seizing a disruptive opportunity.  Jagsi et al.  N Eng J Med 2021.  PMID 34134182.

Representation of women among editors in chief of leading medical journals.  Pinho-Gomes et al.  JAMA Netw Open 2021.  PMID 34495341.

Representation of women in ophthalmology receiving private industry funding 2015-2018.  Patel et al.  Am J Ophthalmol 2022.  PMID 34509432.

Representation of women in vitreoretinal meeting faculty roles from 2015-2019.  Sridhar et al.  Am J Ophthalmol 2021.  PMID 32918901.

Representation of women with industry ties in ophthalmology.  Reddy et al.  JAMA Ophthalmol 2016. PMID 27101532.

Sex-based differences in Medicare reimbursements among ophthalmologists persist across time.  Halawa et al.  Ophthalmology 2022.  PMID 35588946.

Sex disparities in ophthalmic research: a descriptive bibliometric study on scientific authorships. Kramer et al.  JAMA Ophthalmol 2019.  PMID 31415074.

Striving for parity in 2020-Raising awareness and effecting change.  Finn and Baumal.  JAMA Ophthalmol 2020.  PMID 32614405.

Time trends, disease patterns and gender imbalance in the top 100 most cited articles in ophthalmology. Heng Wong et al.  Br J Ophthalmol 2019.  PMID 30002071.

Trends in authorship in articles in major ophthalmology journals by gender, 2002-2014. Mimouni et al.  Ophthalmology 2016.  PMID 27221734.

Trends in female authorship in Cornea from 2007-2019. Amarasekera et al.  Cornea 2021.  PMID 33264143.

Women’s participation in the medical profession: Insights from experiences in Japan, Scandinavia, Russia, and Eastern Europe.  Ramakrishnan et al.  J Womens Health 2014. PMID 25320867.

Women’s representation among members and leaders of national medical specialty societies.  Jagsi et al.  Acad Med 2020.  PMID 31625994.

Sexual Harassment

Challenges to addressing patient-perpetuated sexual harassment in the Veteran’s Affairs healthcare settings.  Fenwick et al. J Gen Intern Med 2021. PMID 33634380.

Experience of male physicians with sexual and gender-based harassment: A qualitative study.  Farkas et al.  J Gen Intern Med 2020.  PMID 32076981.

Medical students’ self-reported gender discrimination and sexual harassment over time.  Kisiel et al.  BMC Med Educ. 2020.  PMID 33302936.

Responding to patient-initiated verbal sexual harassment: Outcomes of a pilot training for ophthalmologists.  Hock et al.  J Acad Ophthalmol. 2017 epub 2020.  PMID 33796813.

Sexual harassment of female providers by patients: A qualitative study.  Scholcoff et al.  J Gen Intern Med 2020.  PMID 32700219.

Sexual harassment in ophthalmology: A survey study.  Cabrera et al.  Ophthalmology 2019.  PMID 30340768.

A US Survey of sexual harassment in ophthalmology training using a novel standardized scale.  Scruggs et al.  J Acad Ophthalmol 2017.  PMID 34027298.

Women’s Ocular Health

Association between sex hormones and visual field progression in women with primary open angle glaucoma: A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study.  Qiu et al.  Front Aging Neurosci. 2021 PMID 35002675.

Dry eye disease: Consideration for women’s health. Matossian et al. J Womens Health 2019. PMID 30694724.

The effects of sex, oral contraception, and menstrual cycle phase on intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and foveal thickness: A descriptive analysis.  Fortepiani et al. Vision 2021. PMID 34698316.

Girl power in glaucoma: The role of estrogen in primary open angle glaucoma.  Fotesko et al.  Cell Mol Neurobiol 2022.  PMID 33040236.

Interventions to improve gender equity in eye care in low-middle income countries:  A systemic review. Mercer et al.  Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2019.  PMID 30767630.

Intimate partner violence in ophthalmology: A global call to action.  Cohen et al.  Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2017.  PMID 28549018.

Macular vascular changes in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus by optical coherence tomography angiography.  Liu et al. BMC Ophthalmol. 2021. PMID 33836718.

Maternal optical coherence tomography angiography changes related to small for gestational age pregnancies.  Su et al.  Transl Vis Sci Technol 2020.  PMID 33344048.

Ophthalmic pathology in the offspring of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.  Alvarez-Bulnes et al.  Matern Child Health J 2020.  PMID 31997119.

Relative postpartum retinal vasoconstriction detected with optical coherence tomography angiography.  Lin et al.  Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021.  PMID 34003925.

Retinal vascular changes during pregnancy detected with optical coherence tomography angiography.  Chanwimol et al.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019.  PMID 31247113.

Retinal vascular changes during menstrual cycle detected with optical coherence tomography angiography.  Guo et al.  J Ophthalmol 2021.  PMID 34336258.

The role of estriol and estrone in keratoconic stromal sex hormone receptors.  Escandon et al.  Int J Mol Sci 2022.  PMID 35055103.

The roles of sex and gender in women’s eye health disparities in the US.  Aninye et al.  Biol Sex Differ 2021. PMID 34670620.

Sex differences in RANTES (CCL5) in patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and controls with no AMD.  Fonteh et al. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2022.  PMID 35133404.

Sex/gender disparities and women’s eye health.  Clayton et al.  Curr Eye Res 2015.  PMID 25548854.

Sex hormone receptors in the human eye.  Gupta et al.  Surv Ophthalmol 2005.  PMID 15850816.

Sex hormones, growth hormone, and the cornea.  McKay et al.  Cells 2022. PMID 35053340.

Sex hormones related ocular dryness in breast cancer women.  Grasso et al.  J Clin Med 2021.  PMID 34198684.

Sex, eyes, and vision: Male/female distinctions in ophthalmic disorders.  Eisner A.  Curr Eye Res 2015.  PMID 25329177.

Sex-steroid imbalance in females and dry eye.  Versura et al.  Curr Eye Res 2015.  PMID 25290221.

The thickness changes of retina in high myopia patients during the third trimester of pregnancy: A pilot study.  Liu et al.  BMC Ophthalmol 2021.  PMID 34706696.

Visual impairment and blindness in adults in the US: Demographic and geographic variations from 2015 to 2050.  Varma et al.  JAMA Ophthalmol 2016.  PMID 27197072.

Vulvovaginal and ocular involvement and treatment in female patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: A review.  Magone et al.  Int J Womens Dermatol 2021.  PMID 35024409.

Historical Interest

Celebrating pioneers: The first board-certified women in American medicine.  Bartley and McGowan.  Ophthalmology 2022.  PMID 35443920.

Celebrating women in ophthalmology.  Higginbotham EJ.  Arch Ophthalmol 1998.  PMID 9747685.

The emergence of women in ophthalmology.  Ross Rd.  Arch Ophthalmol 1997. PMID 9109768.

  • Reply. Zubcov-Iwantscheff et al.  Arch Ophthalmol 1997. PMID 9400808